English as a Global Language: An Exploration of EFL Learners’ Beliefs in Vietnam
Keywords:global language, international language, Vietnamese students, EFL learners, learners’ beliefs
In the era of globalization, the English language has been considered a global language that plays a vital role in many countries. This research paper discusses the beliefs of EFL learners related to the significance of English in Vietnamese contexts. These language perceptions consist of Vietnamese students' attitudes toward the importance of English in Vietnam, their motivations for learning English, and the status of English teaching and learning in Vietnam. Data collected from the questionnaire with the contribution of 514 participants from 4 universities in Ho Chi Minh City has been analyzed for shedding light on the issues of language beliefs. The results indicate that English is regarded as a prevalent international language. To have better job opportunities and to gain competitive advantages are the two main reasons why Vietnamese students learn English. The focus on exam-oriented teaching and learning of English, however, is still prominent in the educational environment in Vietnam. Finally, although communication in English is still a problem of Vietnamese EFL learners, English is expected to become a second language in Vietnam in the near future.
Ap, S. B. (2015). English - A Global Language. International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology, 3(22), 1-4. https://doi.org/10.17577/IJERTCONV3IS22023
Asningtias, S. (2017). Revisiting English As a Global Language. Indonesian Journal of English Teaching, 6(1), 137–148. https://doi.org/10.15642/ijet2.2017.6.1.137-148
Bell, J., & Waters, S. (2014). Doing Your Research Project: A Guide for First-time Researchers. (6th, Ed.) Berkshire, England: Open University Press.
Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2018). Research Methods in Education (8th ed.). New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315456539
Creswell, J. W., & Guetterman, T. C. (2019). Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research (6th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson.
Crystal, D. (2003). English as a Global Language. (2nd, Ed.) New York: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511486999
EF. (2022, October 22). EF EPI 2021 – EF English Proficiency Index – Vietnam. Retrieved from EF Education First: https://www.ef.com/wwen/epi/regions/asia/vietnam/
Graddol, D. (2006). English Next. London: British Council. Retrieved July 4, 2022, from https://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/sites/teacheng/files/pub_english_next.pdf
Hoang, V. V. (2011). Vị thế của tiếng Anh trên thế giới và ở Việt Nam (The Status of English in the World and in Vietnam). Tạp chí Ngôn Ngữ (Journal of Language), 1(260), 11-18. Retrieved November 28, 2022, from http://22.214.171.124:80/handle/123456789/13573
Hoang, V. V. (2016). Vị thế của tiếng Anh trong thời kì hội nhập và một số hàm ý cho việc hoạch định chính sách ngoại ngữ ở Việt Nam (The Status of English in the Context of Integration and Some Implications for Language Policy Planning in Vietnam). Tạp chí Khoa học Ngoại ngữ (Journal of Foreign Languages Science), 46, 12-27. Retrieved November 28, 2022, from http://126.96.36.199:80/handle/123456789/207673
Hoang, V. V. (2020). The Roles and Status of English in Present-day Vietnam: A Sociocultural Analysis. VNU Journal of Foreign Studies, 36(1), 1-21. https://doi.org/10.25073/2525-2445/vnufs.4495
Ibrohimova, M., & Ziyaboyeva, S. (2022). English As a Global Language in XXI Century. The American Journal of Social Science and Education Innovations, 4(1), 5-8. https://doi.org/10.37547/tajssei/Volume04Issue01-02
Ishikawa, T. (2017). Conceptualising English As a Global Contact Language. Englishes in Practice, 4(2), 31-49. https://doi.org/10.1515/eip-2017-0002
Kachru, B. B. (1998). English as an Asian Language. Links & Letters, 5, 89-108. Retrieved from https://raco.cat/index.php/LinksLetters/article/view/22673/22507
Kirkpatrick, A., & Lixun, W. (2020). Cambridge University Press. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316471166.001
Le, X. M., & Le, T. T. (2022). Factors Affecting Students’ Attitudes towards Learning English as a Foreign Language in a Tertiary Institution of Vietnam. International Journal of TESOL & Education, 2(2), 166-185. https://doi.org/10.54855/ijte.22229
Ly, C. K. (2021, May 28). Factors Influencing English-majored Freshmen’s Speaking Performance at Ho Chi Minh City University of Food Industry. Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, 3(6), 107-112. https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2021.3.6.15
Majidi, A. (2013). English as a Global Language: Threat or Opportunity for Minority Languages? Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 4(11), 33-38. http://doi.org/10.5901/mjss.2013.v4n11p33
Ngo, C., Hendricks, L., Tietjen-Smith, T., & Dang, Q. (2018). Teaching Content Using English as a Medium of Instruction at Universities in Vietnam: Issues and Solutions. Asian Education Studies, 3(1), 13-17. https://doi.org/10.20849/aes.v3i1.304
Nguyen, T. B., & Lo, Y. H. (2022). Perceptions of Vietnamese EFL High School Teachers and Students towards English as a Lingua Franca. International Journal of TESOL & Education, 2(1), 327-348. https://doi.org/10.54855/ijte.222120
Nguyen, T. T., Marlina, R., & Cao, T. H. (2020). How well do ELT textbooks prepare students to use English in global contexts? An evaluation of the Vietnamese English textbooks from an English as an international language (EIL) perspective. Asian Englishes, 23(2), 184-200. https://doi.org/10.1080/13488678.2020.1717794
Pandarangga, S. (2016). The Transformation of English As a Global Language in the Future. LiNGUA Jurnal Ilmu Bahasa dan Sastra, 10(2), 90-96. http://dx.doi.org/10.18860/ling.v10i2.3132
Pennycook, A. (2017). The Cultural Politics of English as an International Language. New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315225593
Phan, A. N. (2021). Under the impacts of globalisation: The rising power of English as a foreign language (EFL) and the corresponding response of EFL policy in Vietnam. SN Social Sciences, 1-31. https://doi.org/10.1007/s43545-020-00047-9
Rao, P. S. (2019). The Role of English As a Global Language. Research Journal Of English, 4(1), 65-79. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/334282978_THE_ROLE_OF_ENGLISH_AS_A_GLOBAL_LANGUAGE
Statista. (2022, July 3). The most spoken languages worldwide in 2022. Retrieved from Statista: https://www.statista.com/statistics/266808/the-most-spoken-languages-worldwide/
Sundkvist, P., & Nguyen, X. N. (2020). English in Vietnam. In K. Bolton, W. Botha, & A. Kirkpatrick, The Handbook of Asian Englishes (pp. 683-703). New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118791882.ch30
Ton, N. N., & Pham, H. H. (2010). Vietnamese Teachers’ and Students’ Perceptions of Global English. Language Education in Asia, 48-61. http://dx.doi.org/10.5746/LEiA/10/V1/A05/Ton_Pham
Yao, C. W., Garcia, C. E., & Collins, C. (2019). nglish as lingua franca: Exploring the challenges and opportunities of English language on Vietnamese graduate student learning. Journal for the Study of Postsecondary and Tertiary Education, 4, 209-225. https://doi.org/10.28945/4391
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Ly Cong Khanh
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The copyright of all articles published in the International Journal of TESOL & Education (ijte) remains with the Authors, i.e. Authors retain full ownership of their article. Permitted third-party reuse of the open access articles is defined by the applicable Creative Commons (CC) end-user license which is accepted by the Authors upon submission of their paper. All articles in the ijte are published under the CC BY-NC 4.0 license, meaning that end users can freely share an article (i.e. copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format) and adapt it (i.e. remix, transform and build upon the material) on the condition that proper attribution is given (i.e. appropriate credit, a link to the applicable license and an indication if any changes were made; all in such a way that does not suggest that the licensor endorses the user or the use) and the material is only used for non-commercial purposes.
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository, in a journal or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.