The Effectiveness of CRAAP Test in Evaluating Credibility of Sources


  • Adeva Jane Esparrago-Kalidas Xavier University - Ateneo de Cagayan


Information Evaluation, Fake News, Satire, CRAAP Test, Credibility


Judging credibility is an important skill that 21st-century learners and citizens should possess as the world continues to present a seemingly infinite number of information from a wide variety of sources- not all of them truthful. This research sought to determine whether students can judge the difference between credible and non-credible sources with and without the use of the CRAAP instrument and whether there is a significant difference between the results of the classes involved. The researcher used the descriptive research design with purposive sampling with ninety (90) Grade 10 students as the respondents. The researcher gave a post-test and a pre-test and also conducted a focus group discussion to verify the results. The researcher found that students find it difficult to evaluate credibility without an instrument as they don't have a guide in what to consider in doing so. It is also measured a significant difference (t=2.00**) between the pre-test and post-test results in all sections, which means that the CRAAP test leads students to the aspects that should be considered in judging or evaluating credibility serves as an effective practice material to develop said skill. Students in the different sections also had similar difficulties and marked improvements (pre-test = 1.27 ns, post-test = 1.35 ns), which the CRAAP test helped address. The CRAAP test helps all kinds of students improve, given that diverse students have diverse ways of learning for the CRAAP test targets a specific skill for the students to improve on. 


Ackerman, P., & Kanfer, R. (2009). Test length and cognitive fatigue: An empirical examination of effects on performance and test-taker reactions. Journal Of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 15(2), 163-181. doi: 10.1037/a0015719

Blakeslee, S. (2004) The CRAAP Test. LOEX Quarterly: Vol. 31: Iss. 3, Article 4. Available at:

Gonzalez, D. (2009). Elections, the media, and pop culture. Retrieved from the HotManila website: 0407494.html.

Inquirer. (2017). Online Filipinos trust social media more than traditional media — poll. Retrieved from

Johnson, T., & Kaye, B. (1998). Cruising is Believing?: Comparing Internet and Traditional Sources on Media Credibility Measures. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 75(2), 325-340. doi:

Metzger, M., & Flanagin, A.. (2000). Perceptions of Internet Information Credibility. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 77(3), 515-540. doi:

Metzger, M., & Flanagin, A. (2013). Credibility and trust of information in online environments: The use of cognitive heuristics. Journal Of Pragmatics, 59, 210-220. doi: DOI:10.1016/J.PRAGMA.2013.07.012

Philippine Star. (2018). Facebook launches a digital literacy program for students. Retrieved from

Raagas, E. (2010). Understanding research concepts. Cagayan de Oro: Datastat Analysis Center.

Smith, A. (2018). Declining Majority of Online Americans Say the Internet Has Been Good for Society. Retrieved from

Umeogu, B. (2012). Source Credibility: A Philosophical Analysis. Open Journal Of Philosophy, Vol.2(No. 2), 112-115. DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2012.22017

Wineburg, S., McGrew, S., Breakstone, J. & Ortega, T. (2016). Evaluating Information: The Cornerstone of Civic Online Reasoning. Stanford Digital Repository. Available at:




How to Cite

Esparrago-Kalidas, A. J. (2021). The Effectiveness of CRAAP Test in Evaluating Credibility of Sources. International Journal of TESOL & Education, 1(2), 1-14.

Similar Articles

1-10 of 32

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.