Mundhum: Exploring the Narratives of Limbu Community in an Urban Setting




Language, Limbu, native, migration, Mundhum, urban


This paper explores the hindering factors of ritual transformation from one to the new generation in an urban setting. Paper describes the ritual narratives of the Limbu community practices based on Mundhum, and how it has been impacted in an urban setting. Shared the narratives by generation gaps, its practices, and external influencing factors in Limbu communities on the transformation of Mundhum. The Limbu community are indigenous populations who were migrants from the eastern part of Nepal, especially Taplejung, Terathum, Dhankuta, and Panchthar districts, who are the sampling frame for the qualitative study of this paper. Used ethnography for the collection and interpretation of data from the field with a non-probability sampling technique. In-depth semi-structured interview schedules were used as data collection tools. Seven in-depth interviews were conducted during this research. Key reasons for ritual degradation are low Limbu (native) language practices. Migration, education system, urban socialization practices, and imported culture affect native language transformation from one generation, directly affecting understanding and the transformation of native rituals. Lack of employment, health, and education opportunities are push factors on migrations in an urban setting from their origin. Still, they have mixed experiences with their rituals and bridging native language in Mundhum. Furthermore, lower knowledge, fewer practices of native language, unknown proper practices, urbanization impact, and objectivist thought of the current generation are major hindering factors in transforming Limbu culture and Mundhum rituals into new generations.

Author Biography

Nirmal Chongbang, Tribhuwan University, Nepal

Mr. Nirmal Chongbang is pursuing his doctoral degree in social work from Tribhuvan University. He already published four scientific journal papers & shared more than five conference papers in international conferences in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Mauritius, Nepal and Nigeria.


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How to Cite

Chongbang, N. (2022). Mundhum: Exploring the Narratives of Limbu Community in an Urban Setting. International Journal of TESOL & Education, 2(3), 43–62.