Direct Direct Apology Strategies and Their Lexicogrammatical Realizations in English Conversations

Implications for EFL Students




apology; English conversations; lexicogrammar realizations; occurrence; strategies.


One of the most prevalent speech acts across languages and cultures is apologizing. It plays an important role in conversations which helps maintain social relationships. Many researchers in this field have proposed several apology strategies; however, this article aims to examine the direct apology strategies and the lexicogrammatical realizations of utterances, including apologies in English conversations. This is a descriptive qualitative study that gathered data from conversations extracted from romance and family film scripts. This study was also supported with quantitative information in order to seek the answers to three research questions. The findings show that expression of regret was the most prominent direct apology strategy, which the characters took advantage of in English-language conversations in film scripts. In terms of lexico-grammar, the utterances with the occurrence of sorry and its other realizations appeared most frequently.

Author Biographies

  • Ngo Thi Hien Trang, University of Foreign Language Studies, The University of Danang, Vietnam

    NGO Thi Hien Trang has more than 10 years of teaching experience at Faculty of English, UFLS-UD, Vietnam. She got her MA in 2013 and is currently a Ph.D candidate in the English Language. Her expertise and interests include language teaching methodology and English linguistics. She has published papers in conference proceedings and WOS and SCOPUS journals.

  • Luu Quy Khuong, University of Foreign Language Studies, The University of Danang, Vietnam

    LUU Quy Khuong (Assoc. Prof. Dr.) is a high-rank lecturer of English at Faculty of Foreign Language Teacher Education, UFLS-UD. He got his Ph.D in Linguistics & Literature in 2009 and was awarded the title of Associate Professor in Linguistics in 2009. He has been working in the field of TEFL and teaching Vietnamese culture and language as a foreign language.


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Research Article

How to Cite

Ngo, T. H. T., & Luu, Q. K. (2022). Direct Direct Apology Strategies and Their Lexicogrammatical Realizations in English Conversations: Implications for EFL Students. International Journal of TESOL & Education, 2(2), 82-94.

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